Roman glass Roman glass production developed from Hellenistic technical traditions, initially concentrating on the production of intensely colored cast glass vessels. Glass objects have been recovered across the Roman Empire [24] in domestic, funerary [25] and industrial contexts. Production of raw glass was undertaken in geographically separate locations to the working of glass into finished vessels, [27] [28] and by the end of the 1st century AD large scale manufacturing, primarily in Alexandria, [29] resulted in the establishment of glass as a commonly available material in the Roman world. Islamic glass Islamic glass continued the achievements of pre-Islamic cultures, especially the Sasanian glass of Persia. The Arab poet al- Buhturi — described the clarity of such glass: Medieval Europe[ edit ] A 16th-century stained glass window The Roman tradition of very fine glassmaking did not continue in the Middle Ages, and Anglo-Saxon glass and other regional traditions were mainly functional pieces, mostly somewhat crude forest glass. The claw beaker was popular as a relatively easy to make but impressive vessel that exploited the unique potential of glass. Only at the end of the period did European glass vessels once again become very fine in quality, imitating those imported from the Islamic world. Glass objects from the 7th and 8th centuries have been found on the island of Torcello near Venice. These form an important link between Roman times and the later importance of that city in the production of the material.

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About Glass History of Glass From our earliest origins, man has been making use of glass. Historians have discovered that a form of natural glass – obsidian – formed for instance, within the mouth of a volcano as a result of the intense heat of an eruption melting sand – was first used by man as tips for spears. Archaeologists have found evidence of man-made glass which dates back to BC; this took the form of glazes used for coating stone beads. It was not until BC that the first hollow glass container was made by covering a sand core with a layer of molten glass.

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Economy Xscape in the Glasshoughton area of Castleford The town is home to Burberry , the clothing manufacturer and retailer. Allinson ‘s Queen’s Mill is the world’s largest traditional stonegrinding mill [1] , but is now part of the large Allied Mills company. Some areas of Castleford are poor and run down. In part, this is because of the closure of the town and its surrounding area’s collieries in the s and 90s.

Despite a decline in industries such as coal mining and textile manufacturing, significant economic and employment growth has occurred in recent years in service sectors, especially in the retail and distribution sectors. This includes the Junction 32 Outlet village formerly known as Freeport and Xscape leisure complex, Europe’s largest indoor real snow slope, which has turned the periphery of the town in to one of the most popular destinations for UK snowboarders.

Such developments have taken place because of the town’s easy motorway accessibility and twenty-minute rail connection to the regional city of Leeds.

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We are very committed to manufacturing in the UK. The firm said it still owns land in Leeds and reiterated that it is committed to Yorkshire. Another option was to build a new green field site. The firm expects to employ people at the site by the end of the year.

Review of the evidence from excavations at Castleford Results of the Assesment of the archive from the excavations in the Vicus for the Problems with the archive 1 The dating evidence 2 An outline of the occupation of the sites Site 42 4 Site 51 6 Site 44 9 The wider picture 11 The way forward Pottery 12 Stratigraphic narrative

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Grip on 17 December , and on Sittingbourne to Sheerness service on 16 October This is a knowledgeable but thoroughly entertaining discourse which covers every bridge that crosses or is known to have crossed the Wye, including footbridges, private farm bridges and those dating from Roman times, as well as the numerous road and rail bridges. Many of the latter have now gone or are used as footbridges, the lines they carried having long since closed.

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Roman Britain

Organised by law firm Ward Hadaway and backed by The Yorkshire Post, the list celebrates privately-owned companies in the region who have shown the largest growth over recent years, with the aim of recognising high achieving companies and encouraging others to follow them. It includes leading players in the worlds of construction and video games. The list also includes firms that have been owned by the same family for generations and companies that were established during the dark days that followed the global economic crisis of It has been compiled in association with Top UK law firm Ward Hadaway, which has seen its Yorkshire operation grow considerably since it was established in Leeds in Jamie Martin, the managing partner at Ward Hadaway, said:

Review of the evidence from excavations at Castleford Results of the Assesment of the archive from the excavations in the Vicus for the Problems with the archive 1 The dating evidence 2 An outline of the occupation of the sites Site 42 4 Site 51 6 Site 44 9 The wider picture 11 The way forward Pottery 12 Stratigraphic narrative

Celtic tribes[ edit ] Early inhabitants of Yorkshire were Celts , who formed two separate tribes, the Brigantes and the Parisi. The tribe controlled most of Northern England and more territory than any other Celtic tribe in England. That they had the Yorkshire area as their heartland is evident in that Isurium Brigantum now known as Aldborough was the capital town of their civitas under Roman rule.

Six of the nine Brigantian poleis described by Claudius Ptolemaeus in the Geographia fall within the historic county. Initially, this situation suited both the Romans and the Brigantes, who were known as the most militant tribe in Britain. Queen Cartimandua left her husband Venutius for his armour bearer, Vellocatus , setting off a chain of events which changed control of the Yorkshire area.

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Geological information can better characterise the near-surface in coalfield areas. Abstract Government-led regeneration schemes and policies encouraging the use of brownfield land present a challenge, particularly in coalfield areas. Coalfields have typically experienced multiple phases of development and can be susceptible to a suite of problematic ground conditions that may be rooted in the near-surface geology or result from anthropogenic activity.

Such problems, related to the nature of void backfill, undermined and unstable ground and the presence of contaminated land in the near-surface, may deter investment in the very areas earmarked for redevelopment.

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The How and Why of Archaeology Outreach: Activities are often run by volunteers who put a lot of hard work into designing and implementing them. However, despite the success of many of these projects, archaeology is struggling to convince the public of its worth. With the rise of university tuition fees in , some university departments are concerned about how this will affect their intake. University departments and archaeology firms have started introducing outreach officers in an attempt to reach local people, and it is becoming increasingly important to have outreach experience on your CV when looking for a job.

It is important to share experiences and assess the success of our projects in order to tackle the issues with public engagement.

Roman Britain

West Yorkshire Police Police officers and staff in Wakefield will start moving into their new headquarters in Normanton today. Work began on the multi-million pound facility on Havertop Lane, Normanton, back in July and is on target to be finished on schedule. A number of teams will start moving in to the new facility and their transfer will be phased to ensure minimal disruption to the service provided to the public of Wakefield.

Wakefield is a city in West Yorkshire, England, on the River Calder and the eastern edge of the Pennines, which had a population of 99, at the census.. Wakefield was dubbed the “Merrie City” in the Middle Ages and in John Leland described it as, “a very quick market town and meately large; well served of fish and flesh both from sea and by rivers so that all vitaile is very.

Toponymy[ edit ] The name “Wakefield” may derive from “Waca’s field” — the open land belonging to someone named “Waca” or could have evolved from the Old English word wacu, meaning “a watch or wake”, and feld, an open field in which a wake or festival was held. Early history[ edit ] Flint and stone tools and later bronze and iron implements have been found at Lee Moor and Lupset in the Wakefield area showing evidence of human activity since prehistoric times.

The settlement grew near a crossing place on the River Calder around three roads, Westgate, Northgate and Kirkgate. The settlement was recorded as Wachfeld in the Domesday Book of , and covered a much greater area than present day Wakefield, much of which was described as “waste”. By the church was again rebuilt and was extended between and In William de Warenne, 5th Earl of Surrey received a grant for a market in the town.

The market was close to the Bull Ring and the church. As preparation for the impending invasion by the Spanish Armada in April , men from the wapentake of Morley and Agbrigg were summoned to Bruntcliffe near Morley with their weapons. Over troops were taken prisoner along with the Royalist commander, Lieutenant-General Goring. The town was a centre for cloth dealing, with its own piece hall, the Tammy Hall, built in Large warehouses were built on the river banks to store grain from Norfolk , Cambridgeshire and Lincolnshire to supply the fast-growing population in the West Riding of Yorkshire.

Great quantities of barley were grown in the neighbourhood and in more malt was made in Wakefield “than in any district of equal extent in the kingdom”. Regular mail coaches departed to Leeds , London , Manchester, York and Sheffield and the ‘Strafford Arms’ was an important coaching inn.

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